Finding a percentage of a given quantity, Expressing one quantity as a percentage of another, Percentage increase and decrease    23    AveragesFinding the average, Using a module to find the average    24    GraphsDistance/Time Graphs, Frequency tables, Bar charts    25    Calculations using vinculumsMultiplication, Further multiplication using vinculums, Rules for multiplying vinculums, Adding and subtracting vinculums, Vertically and crosswise multiplication with vinculums    26    Geometry 3 - AnglesTypes of angle, The unit for angles, To draw an angle equal to 60˚, To draw an angle of 30˚, Measuring angles, Types of angle, Angles about a point, Angles on a straight line, Naming angles    27    Practice and Revision 3        Appendix - Tables of weights and measures    231, Chapter 1  Simple arithmeticAddition; subtraction; multiplication; division; problems; rules for signs in addition and subtraction; rules for signs in multiplication and division    Chapter 2  Multiplication by All from 9 and the last from 10Multiplying below the base; multiplying above the base; multiplying above and below the base; squaring numbers close to a base; squaring numbers ending in 5; when the final digits add up to 10Chapter 3  DivisionSimple division; division by 9; division by All from nine and the last from ten; division by Transpose and adjustChapter 4  AlgebraFirst principles; solving equations; two-stage equations by Transpose and adjust; expanding brackets; equations with brackets; making up expressions; dealing with minus signs; solving equations with minus signs    Chapter 5  Coordinate geometryCoordinates; straight lines on graphs; coordinates which satisfy an equation; plotting a straight line from a given equation    Chapter 6  ApproximationsRounding off; decimal places; significant figures; working to a given number of decimal places    Chapter 7  Practice and revision 1    Chapter 8 GeometryRevision of basic constructions; angles in relation to a circle; angles in a triangle; parallel lines    Chapter 9  Arithmetic practiceTuning up practice; multiplying and dividing by powers of ten; using the Proportionately rule; further use of Proportionately    Chapter 10  Compound arithmeticAddition; subtraction; multiplication of compound quantities; division; compound arithmetic with metric units    Chapter 11  IndicesIndices; laws of indices; areas and volumesChapter 12  Further division Two-digit divisors with whole number remainders; altered remainders; straight division with altered remainders    Chapter 13  Factors and multiplesSummary of definitions; divisibility; divisibility rules; test for 11; prime factors; highest common factor; using prime factors to find the HCF; finding the HCF by Elimination and retention; finding the LCM by Vertically and crosswise; investigation into primes    Chapter 14  TrianglesConstruction of triangles    Chapter 15  Vulgar fractions: addition and subtractionNaming terms; equivalent fractions; improper fractions and mixed numbers; addition and subtraction; comparing fractions    Chapter 16  Vulgar fractions: multiplication and divisionMultiplying fractions; dividing by a fraction; mixed practice    Chapter 17  Discrimination in divisionExtending simple division; division by nine; division by All from nine and the last from ten; division by eleven; division by Transpose and adjust; dividing by 5; proportional division; straight division with altered remainders; using a vinculum in the flag; choosing which method to use    Chapter 18  Further algebraSimplifying in addition and subtraction; simplifying in multiplication and division; using brackets; factorising expressions; multiplying binomials by Vertically and crosswise; construction of formulae; substitution; using formulae    Chapter 19  Ratio and proportionRatio; proportion; solving ratio equations; problems in direct proportion; problems in inverse proportion; dividing a quantity in a given ratio; percentages; percentage increase and decrease; pie charts    Chapter 20  Fractions to decimalsLarge recurring decimals of a particular type; converting fractions to decimals by division; how to write recurring decimals; Proportionately; one seventh    Chapter 21  The octahedronOctahedron; internal model for octahedron; truncating the octahedron    Chapter 22  Practice and revision 2    Answers    197. Numerator. 8. Vedic Mathematical Formulae What we call VEDIC MATHEMATICS is a mathematical elaboration of 'Sixteen Simple Mathematical formulae from theVedas' as brought out by Sri Bharati Krishna Tirthaji. Subtraction of decimals. 6. It applies to solving equations, division in fractions and dividing numbers close to a base. It is our understanding that much of this initial teaching of Vedic Mathematics may have been implemented poorly by people who did not have a good grounding in their subject matter as they may have been more interested in promoting Hinduism than Vedic Mathematics, hence the academic reaction. Urdhva - tiryagbhyam    31  4. 7. 3. Each method used for numerical calculations is introduced separately and exercises are carefully graded to enable the distinct developmental steps to be mastered. This book is the result of those interactions. Kapoor. From our point of view, the best situation you can end up with is receiving spam email etc, with the worst scenario's being someone using your credit card or having virus's or spyware installed onto your computer. It is not necessary for the pupil or teacher to learn these- they become familiar after a while and seem quite natural.The title of this book, The Cosmic Computer, is from Maharishi Mahesh Yogi who said some years ago that the Sutras of Vedic Mathematics are the software for the Cosmic Computer: it is the Cosmic Computer that determines the outcome of every event in the universe, according to the laws of nature.Vedic mathematics is being taught in some schools with great success. Four weeks training course for first stage Vedic mathematics teacher. Digital Roots 1399. Vedic Mathematical Concepts and Their Application to Unsolved Mathematical Problems: Three Proofs of Fermat's Last Theorem. Lecturer, DIET Dilshad Garden)Neelam Kapoor (Retired PGT, Directorate of Education)Chander Kanta Chabria (PGT, RPVV Tyagraj  Nagar, Lodhi Road)Rekha Jolly (TGT, RPVV Vasant  Kunj)Dr. Satyavir Singh (Principal SNI College Pilana), EditorDr. It presents direct, immediate and easily understood proofs. Multiplying by a single digit. to the solution of non-linear partial differential equations.